Without examining Zuriel it is difficult to say what may be going on here, something certainly is not right if there is exercise intolerance from playing for a short period of time (for such a young cat); a loss of appetite is also concerning and may be attributable to numerous different conditions, however without examining Zuriel I cannot start to narrow in on a cause. You should visit your Veterinarian for a thorough examination to help narrow in on a specific cause. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
Example a amazing Maine Coon can cost $1,200 (Parents HCM tested, fixed, shots, everything!) compared to a sickly Maine Coon (Parents not tested, no shots, not fixed and not pretty) post on a classified site that is $500. Some people blame the kitten mills, but the person to blame is some one funding those places. You can do the research, you can pick some one upholding proper ethics.
My cat developed rapid labored respirations a week ago, the vet diagnosed lung cancer and he also had bladder infection. On xray he had consolidated whitish area with scattered crystal like areas. He was given antibiotics for infection and a steroid injection the vet said to temporary help with the breathing but he said my pet did not have long to live. He is breathing less labored and his rate fluctuates between 60-80/min. question is could this be something else instead of cancer-fungal, parasite? I do feed stray cats and even though he is mainly indoor cat I do take him out when I'm outside and he has gone under shrubs and maybe has sniffed something?
If your cat is breathing heavily while resting, it can be a sign of several common problems from anxiety to airway disease. Understanding some of the reasons for labored breathing in cats can help you assess the severity of the situation. However, if your cat is having difficulty breathing, this is an emergency, and you should take your cat to your veterinarian right away.
Characteristics: You will first be struck by the beautiful silvery-blue coat of the Russian Blue. Their coat gives them an elegant appearance that is distinctly their own. The Russian Blue is a medium size cat that is muscular, with long legs and a long body. They are fine boned but often appear larger because of their thick double coat. They have large ears that are set far apart and are somewhat pointed. They have a medium, wedge-shaped head and, in addition to their uniquely beautiful coat, they have striking green eyes. They are wide-set and their vivid green color stands out because of the surrounding blue coat. They are truly a lovely and very beautiful cat.
My two year old shorthair was a rescue she was found abandoned in an apartment with her kitten just one. She started eating litter and hiding first in the litter box for a week or so until I found her and I was able to get her to stop by taking the kids off all litter boxes she moved to my hamper then she started urinating outside the box on my wife’s side of the room or in the closet on it near my wife’s shoes so I took her to the vet. I paid a lot of money for her to literally look at Luna and ask about symptoms then diagnosed her with a UTI without blood work. She sent us home with Clavamax and Meloxicam for 7 days but the Clavamax ended up only being 12.5 doses not 14. We were told by the vet it could also be stress because we got a new cat 3 weeks earlier. She said buy a diffuser with pheromones and see if that works. I also bought her a 6’ tall tree and She improved but was gaining weight slowly then a month and half later she got the same hiding and weight loss and urinating outside the box issue again. Her weight fell off this time and would only use the litter box if I took her in there or she had to poop. She wouldn’t urinate in it. So I moved it to the room with her so she didn’t have to go so far. She drinks lots of water not excessive she likes sitting in her litter box so I made a large patch of cat grass in my house in her room. She loves laying in the grass. She was getting along with the new cat fine before this started for two weeks. But it cleared up and came back after only 45 days. She WILL NOT sit in my living room or in my recliner at all. I thought it was stress for sure. So I took her back to vet and demanded blood work. She was dropped off I came to get her and she said all blood was negative nothing really irregular she then proceeds to tell me the only thing she can think of is FIP. Then I ask how was her iron and she said we didn’t do CBC only chemistry to check internal organs so I’m crying and confused ???? My cat is breathing 40 breaths per minute she eats she uses box if it’s where she can see it. She eats litter. How can she tell me I should euthanize if she didn’t rule out all other issues?? She wanted me to right then. It’s a large corporate vet. So I contacted customer care they sent her the email and told her to contact me. So I check her gums they are pale light pink/whiteish and the other symptoms the scared/hiding thing. I have epilepsy and had a bad seizure the two weeks before she got sick. Could I have had one bad enough it stressed her? That’s why she won’t go in my chair and it caused her to stop eating and she became anemic? The blood work with the pet care plan I have was $65 and the meds were $52. I demanded all blood work be done to get an answer and they only did chemistry for organ function and when I’m told she’s ready to go I get there and after I’m told she’s dying I’m told we can do CBC if she survives past the medication days. She didn’t do her shots because it was a waste if I was going to euthanize so she made up her mind I would before seeing me about it. I’m not unless she gets worse. 6 days of meds and she’s “better” I can see a slight change and she’s gained weight small amount but some. She was 8lb and dropped to 6.3 then 4.7 in 3 weeks if not faster. Is it possible she’s anemic and or other nutrient deficient and not at all sick with FIP. Oh yeah no vomit no diarrhea she has daily stool that’s the right texture. Please help. I’m a disabled Iraq vet and she’s the only daytime friend I have she saved me two years ago. My other cats are special but we have a special bond. I can’t watch her die but I can’t put her down not being postitive that we fought for her.

Hello so my cat is around 8 years old and is a outdoor cat. He came in today and is very low energy sitting in the middle of my room on the floor which is very unusual for him. He is breathing very rapidly, and aggressively. He sometimes makes a little noise out of his mouth. So I don’t know if this is something small and I shouldn’t worry, but this is my first day of seeing this symptoms so if it continues then I’ll go see a vet.
Sharleen ear temperature change hot to cold 4 times overnight. Sound stuffy when purr. Breath heavily and urinate lots and often last few weeks. Took her to the vet for blood work and check up today. She seem worse and in pain. Lower lip is now swollen, right front leg a little limping. Not active all afternoon. Night fall and she seem restless. What can I do to ease her pain while waiting for blood work result?
In 1871 a Russian Blue was shown at the first cat show at the Crystal Palace in London, under the name Archangel Cat. At this point, Russian Blues were shorthaired, solid blue felines with foreign body types. From photos and published sources of the time, the original coat was thick, dense, glossy, and colored a light silver-blue. Russian Blues competed in the same class with all other shorthaired blues, despite obvious differences in type. Since the round-headed, cobby British Blues were favored in the show halls, the slender Russian Blues rarely won.
Sharleen ear temperature change hot to cold 4 times overnight. Sound stuffy when purr. Breath heavily and urinate lots and often last few weeks. Took her to the vet for blood work and check up today. She seem worse and in pain. Lower lip is now swollen, right front leg a little limping. Not active all afternoon. Night fall and she seem restless. What can I do to ease her pain while waiting for blood work result?

Historians and cat lovers in Scandinavia and England worked tirelessly to map out a bloodline foundation for the cat breed. Records show that the first Archangel Blue appeared in 1875 to compete against similar blue breeds at the London Crystal Palace. One newspaper said that the Archangel was “particularly furry”, “very handsome” and “has similarities to that of the wild grey rabbit”. Before long, word was spreading around about the Russian Blue.
You shouldn’t notice breathing rates over 40 breaths per minute in a resting cat; an increase in respiration may be due to inadequate airflow, malpositioning of the throat, respiratory infection, heart issues among other causes. Without examining Roxanne I cannot say for sure what is happening, keep a close eye on her and if you decide to have her fixed speak with your Veterinarian then. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

Four of the five species of the big cats (the Panthera genus – lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar and snow leopard), the exception being the snow leopard can hybridize with each other to produce numerous hybrids. In fact, breeding of two different pantheras to produce hybrid big cats has been banned in many zoos and animal sanctuaries due to no conservation value of the hybrid, and the risk it poses on the mother that gives birth to it.
These cats have some serious staying power. Hailing from Siberia, this breed was first referenced all the way back in 1000 A.D., according to TICA. Powerful, intelligent and entertaining best describe the Siberian, which frequently takes problem-solving (like opening doors) into their own paws. Their semi-long coat is thick in the winter to withstand the elements and becomes shorter and lighter in the warmer months.

Not much is known about this rare breed; however, it is believed that the Russian blue originates from northern Russia, specifically the Archangel Isles. According to the Cat Fanciers' Association (CFA), cat rumor has it that "the Russian blue breed descended from the cats kept by the Russian Czars. Assuming the Russian blue did migrate from northern Russia, it was likely via ship to England and northern Europe in the mid-1860s." As early as the sixteenth century, recorded history shows that trade ships passed between this territory and the British Isles, and the Vikings were active in both regions centuries prior, but there is no mention of the Russian blue cat until the nineteenth century.
Thank you for your email. Without examining her or knowing more about her condition and history, I can't determine what might be going on with Mochi, but those are signs that she needs to see a veterinarian as soon as possible, as they will be able to examine her, decide what tests or treatments might be necessary, and treat her so that she feels better. I hope that all goes well for her.
My cat just suddenly started breathing very fast, panting with her mouth open, and twitching. She got very week short after, in able to walk, with an extremely fast heart rate. She stumbled to get her self to an is played corner where i left her to calm down with her babies and the Window opened to help her get more oxygen. She is a first time mother of four kittens that are about 5 weeks old, and im scared to death that she might be really sick. She seamed to have called down a bit, but she still seams extremely week and gets tired fast. Has trouble walking and her appetite seams to have gone down dramatically. I want to take her to a vet but I am studying abroad in jordan and there are basically no animal hospitals here, but there are veterinarians. Is there any recomended medications or something i can do to help her get better?
Russian Blues have a tolerant nature toward children who treat them kindly and respectfully. They will even put up with the clumsy pats given by toddlers, as if they recognize that no harm is meant, and if necessary they will walk away or climb out of reach to escape being bonked on the head. That said, the patient and gentle Russian Blue should always be protected from rough treatment, so always supervise very young children when they want to pet the cat.

If your cat does appear to have a heart problem, your veterinarian may also order an ECG (electrocardiogram) to measure the rhythm and electrical activity of the heart, both of which determine the heart's ability to operate normally. If your cat's problem is in its nose or airways, a small camera called an endoscope may be used to get a closer look at these areas. These procedures are known as rhinoscopy and bronchoscopy, respectively. While your veterinarian is examining your cat with the endoscope, samples of fluid and cells may be taken for biopsic analysis.

Long term prognosis for recovery of your cat will vary from cause to cause. Infections and pneumonia are serious illnesses that need a high degree of specialized veterinary care. In all cases, your cat’s chances for a full recovery will increase if immediate veterinarian care is sought as soon as initial symptoms are detected. Additionally, given the seriousness of lung and breathing issues, you should follow up after symptoms in your cat have resolved in order to prevent potential recurrence.
This is a well-behaved cat that is easy to train. Or, rather, it easily trains its people. It enjoys a good game of fetch and will keep the game going longer than you may have time for, and you will make time because the Russian Blue is known for actually appearing hurt when it has been ignored. Elegant, and reserved, this cat is also very playful, and loves to chase after toys or sunbeams.
Historians and cat lovers in Scandinavia and England worked tirelessly to map out a bloodline foundation for the cat breed. Records show that the first Archangel Blue appeared in 1875 to compete against similar blue breeds at the London Crystal Palace. One newspaper said that the Archangel was “particularly furry”, “very handsome” and “has similarities to that of the wild grey rabbit”. Before long, word was spreading around about the Russian Blue.

The TICA Chausie breed standard allows three colors: solid black, black grizzled tabby, and black (a.k.a. brown) ticked tabby.[8] Because the Chausie breed is relatively new, Chausies are still frequently born that have a variety of other colors and patterns, and they make wonderful pets. However, only the three permissible colors are considered ideal. Only cats in the three permissible colors can be entered in new breed classes at cat shows, and only the three colors will be eligible eventually for championship classes. Gold or yellow eye color is preferred, though yellower and lighter shades of green are allowed.


Russian Blues like their daily routine to be just so, and dislike household changes more than the average cat— and the average cat dislikes household changes a lot. They particularly dislike changes to their dinner schedule, and will make you aware of their displeasure. They are also fastidious about their litter boxes and will complain or may even go elsewhere if they’re not spic and span.
There are many possible causes for a cat to feel lethargic with an increased respiratory rate which may include infections, gastrointestinal obstruction (increased breathing rate due to pain), anaemia (less red blood cells lead to an increase in respiration) among other causes; you should keep a close eye on Buddy, but it would be wise to visit your Veterinarian to help narrow in on a specific cause for the lethargy as there are many possible causes. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

My two year old shorthair was a rescue she was found abandoned in an apartment with her kitten just one. She started eating litter and hiding first in the litter box for a week or so until I found her and I was able to get her to stop by taking the kids off all litter boxes she moved to my hamper then she started urinating outside the box on my wife’s side of the room or in the closet on it near my wife’s shoes so I took her to the vet. I paid a lot of money for her to literally look at Luna and ask about symptoms then diagnosed her with a UTI without blood work. She sent us home with Clavamax and Meloxicam for 7 days but the Clavamax ended up only being 12.5 doses not 14. We were told by the vet it could also be stress because we got a new cat 3 weeks earlier. She said buy a diffuser with pheromones and see if that works. I also bought her a 6’ tall tree and She improved but was gaining weight slowly then a month and half later she got the same hiding and weight loss and urinating outside the box issue again. Her weight fell off this time and would only use the litter box if I took her in there or she had to poop. She wouldn’t urinate in it. So I moved it to the room with her so she didn’t have to go so far. She drinks lots of water not excessive she likes sitting in her litter box so I made a large patch of cat grass in my house in her room. She loves laying in the grass. She was getting along with the new cat fine before this started for two weeks. But it cleared up and came back after only 45 days. She WILL NOT sit in my living room or in my recliner at all. I thought it was stress for sure. So I took her back to vet and demanded blood work. She was dropped off I came to get her and she said all blood was negative nothing really irregular she then proceeds to tell me the only thing she can think of is FIP. Then I ask how was her iron and she said we didn’t do CBC only chemistry to check internal organs so I’m crying and confused ???? My cat is breathing 40 breaths per minute she eats she uses box if it’s where she can see it. She eats litter. How can she tell me I should euthanize if she didn’t rule out all other issues?? She wanted me to right then. It’s a large corporate vet. So I contacted customer care they sent her the email and told her to contact me. So I check her gums they are pale light pink/whiteish and the other symptoms the scared/hiding thing. I have epilepsy and had a bad seizure the two weeks before she got sick. Could I have had one bad enough it stressed her? That’s why she won’t go in my chair and it caused her to stop eating and she became anemic? The blood work with the pet care plan I have was $65 and the meds were $52. I demanded all blood work be done to get an answer and they only did chemistry for organ function and when I’m told she’s ready to go I get there and after I’m told she’s dying I’m told we can do CBC if she survives past the medication days. She didn’t do her shots because it was a waste if I was going to euthanize so she made up her mind I would before seeing me about it. I’m not unless she gets worse. 6 days of meds and she’s “better” I can see a slight change and she’s gained weight small amount but some. She was 8lb and dropped to 6.3 then 4.7 in 3 weeks if not faster. Is it possible she’s anemic and or other nutrient deficient and not at all sick with FIP. Oh yeah no vomit no diarrhea she has daily stool that’s the right texture. Please help. I’m a disabled Iraq vet and she’s the only daytime friend I have she saved me two years ago. My other cats are special but we have a special bond. I can’t watch her die but I can’t put her down not being postitive that we fought for her.
Cats, both pedigreed and domestic, come in a rainbow of colors and patterns. These are all a matter of genetics, so a calico mother might give birth in one litter to calico, tabby, and solid or bicolored kittens, depending on her genetic background and the background of the male cat(s) that fathered the litter. Cats, come in three basic colors (called "self" by geneticists): red (commonly called "orange," or sometimes affectionately referred to as "ginger," or "marmalade"), black, and white.

The goal of breeding the Serengeti Cat is to produce a cat that resembles the wild Serval but does not contain any Serval bloodline. The first Serengeti Cat was bred by Karen Sausman in 1994 by crossing a Bengal and an Oriental Shorthair. This "foundation cat" and its progeny have been bred with many other types of cats to improve the breed—but no Servals. However, its lineage does include the Asian Leopard Cat whose genes contributed to its Bengal Cat ancestor. Serengeti Cats have long ears and long legs like a Serval, and a neck that does not taper where it meets the head. They are agile, active, and vocal. TICA classifies this cat as an advanced new breed.

What's wrong with my poor gravy? My cat Gravy has become extremely affectionate today and has followed me outside 3x, where he never ever goes! He's following me like a shadow and meowing at me more than normal. He doesn't seem to be in any pain, but his breathing and change of demeanor have me concerned. He's breathing fairly rapidly thru his nose, and he is moving his tail a lot also acting maybe as if he is worried?
If you suspect that Dolly has heatstroke and she is unable to keep fluids down you should take her into your Veterinarian for an examination and intravenous fluids to restore hydration and to get her cooled down. A damp towel and a fan is one way to get a cat to cool down but if she isn’t able to keep down fluids you should treat it as an emergency. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
While oxygen is being transferred to the red blood cells, carbon dioxide is transferred from the red blood cells into the lungs. It is then carried out through the nose through a process referred to as expiration. This cyclic motion of breathing is controlled by the respiratory center in the brain and nerves in the chest. Diseases that affect the respiratory system, or the respiratory center in the brain, can bring about breathing difficulties. Troubled or labored breathing is medically referred to as dyspnea, and excessively rapid breathing is medically referred to as tachypnea (also, polypnea).

Characteristics: You will first be struck by the beautiful silvery-blue coat of the Russian Blue. Their coat gives them an elegant appearance that is distinctly their own. The Russian Blue is a medium size cat that is muscular, with long legs and a long body. They are fine boned but often appear larger because of their thick double coat. They have large ears that are set far apart and are somewhat pointed. They have a medium, wedge-shaped head and, in addition to their uniquely beautiful coat, they have striking green eyes. They are wide-set and their vivid green color stands out because of the surrounding blue coat. They are truly a lovely and very beautiful cat.	

Cuddling may be in a ragdoll’s DNA. Developed as a breed in California in the 1960s, says TICA, they tend to collapse — just like a ragdoll — into the arms of willing snugglers. They’re described as relaxed, happy, quiet cats that are usually tolerant of other animals and children who want to carry them around. Like dogs, Ragdolls can be friendly, smart and have been taught by some owners to fetch.

The cat staged its first public appearance in 1871, when a Russian Blue was displayed at the Crystal Palace in London, under the name Archangel Cat. In those days, the Russian Blue looked quite different than what we are familiar with today. They were short-haired, solid blue cats with thick, dense, glossy coats. And though they were allowed to compete in the same class as other shorthaired blues, the Russian Blue frequently lost to the British Blue breed, a cat that had caught the fancy of the people.

After I had a party at my house a few days ago, my cat has been acting very differently. He sleeps all day and only gets up to pee or poop, doesn't eat and drink as much as he used to, and starts breathing more rapidly and heavily. I've brought him to a vet and they said that it's likely due to stress caused by the party, and for the past couple of days I've been giving him liquid food and vitamins with a pipette, but I feel like his breathing has actually gone worse. I'm just afraid that the vet misdiagnosed him (since I live in a rural town in Indonesia, I don't really trust the vet here), so do you think there's something more going on than just stress? Oh and if it helps, my cat had just done his first vaccination about a week ago. Thank you
We have a 9 week old Bengal kitten that it was discovered yesterday at our vet appointment that he has a grade 4 cardiac murmur. He has been eating and moderately playing like normal. Tonight his breathing is pretty rapid - ranging from 60-80 bpm. He’s sleeping peacefully now. Anything I should do? I did call a cardiologist, but we can’t get an appointment until July and even if we could, we can’t afford the visit. Looking for help!
A kitten turned up in my family's yard. Because of her tanish-grey coloring and the black tufts on her ears, we at first wondered if she was a bobcat kitten. A quick look at bobcat traits (she has a long black tail, no ruff of fur around her face) proved that not to be true, and we figured she was just a slightly odd-looking stray domestic cat. We took her in.
Okay so we’ve had our cat since being a kitten and she’s always been very scatty as we think she was abused, due to getting her and her having marks on her neck, but her breathing has always been rapid. (80 resps per minute) but in herself, she’s like any normal cat. She’s very friendly, not in any form of pain, is this something that needs to be addressed?
The TICA Chausie breed standard allows three colors: solid black, black grizzled tabby, and black (a.k.a. brown) ticked tabby.[8] Because the Chausie breed is relatively new, Chausies are still frequently born that have a variety of other colors and patterns, and they make wonderful pets. However, only the three permissible colors are considered ideal. Only cats in the three permissible colors can be entered in new breed classes at cat shows, and only the three colors will be eligible eventually for championship classes. Gold or yellow eye color is preferred, though yellower and lighter shades of green are allowed.
Russian Blues like their daily routine to be just so, and dislike household changes more than the average cat— and the average cat dislikes household changes a lot. They particularly dislike changes to their dinner schedule, and will make you aware of their displeasure. They are also fastidious about their litter boxes and will complain or may even go elsewhere if they’re not spic and span.
I'm not sure, without seeing Lily, why her breathing is so elevated, whether it is pain, infection, or another trauma related incident. The antibiotic injection may help, or she may need further care, as she did go through a very traumatic event. If her breathing has not improved over the next 12-24 hours, it would be best to have a recheck for her - she may need tonging care until all of this is resolved.

While oxygen is being transferred to the red blood cells, carbon dioxide is transferred from the red blood cells into the lungs. It is then carried out through the nose through a process referred to as expiration. This cyclic motion of breathing is controlled by the respiratory center in the brain and nerves in the chest. Diseases that affect the respiratory system, or the respiratory center in the brain, can bring about breathing difficulties. Troubled or labored breathing is medically referred to as dyspnea, and excessively rapid breathing is medically referred to as tachypnea (also, polypnea).
Our senior cat began breathing heavily with fast respirations two days ago. Her appetite has gone down as well. I can get her to drink broth, and eat small amounts of tuna. About two months ago she began vomiting here and there after eating, but her appetite and energy were still good so I just assumed she might have eaten too quickly. She is still drinking, and hasn't vomited since the heavy,fast breathing and loss of appetite started three days ago, but she hasn't eaten much to throw up I guess. My concern is if this is just end of life I don't want to stress her out bringing her to the vet and getting unnecessary tests done. I feel like our vet's office has begun running tests more for the price tag they carry than whatever diagnosis they are hoping to find. I regret putting my senior dog through all the trips to the vet and tests they did before finally having him put down. If this is end of life I'd rather her go where she is comfortable at home than in the unfamiliar vet's office.

When my kitten is sleeping he breathes very quickly. He doesn’t do it once in while, he does it every single time and throughout the whole time he’s sleeping. I read online that to calculate their breathing, I should count how many times they breathe within a 15 second period and multiply it by 4. It also said they’re normal breathing rate should be around 25-30 and my kitten’s is 92. He’s seems pretty healthy, he eats he’s food, he’s drinking his water, he’s very active so I’m very confused about this.
My 8-month old kitten has always breathed quickly. She now breathes about 50 bpm, but under stress (like in the car) she can breathe up to 80-90 bpm. She has all her vaccines, and had deworming pills as well at about 2 months old. She is an outdoor cat. I’m wondering if I should seek veterinary care, but it’s so expensive - is there any preliminary monitoring I can do at home?
Without examining Rocky it is difficult to say what the specific cause of the symptoms are since rapid breathing is a vague symptom. You should visit your Veterinarian immediately since Rocky is struggling to breathe and is using his abdomen to breathe as well. There isn’t anything productive I can advise you to do at home for this. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

so there’s a stray cat that visit’s me everyday, she had a wound on her leg 2 months ago and i felt bad for her so i started feeding her and now she’s pretty friendly and loves it when i pet her, but i noticed her breathing is fast and i mean really fast, i only notice it when she’s laying down, she doesn’t have any of the symptoms mentioned above except breathing fast(i haven’t counted but if i’m to guess, it’s about 90 per minute, it’s noticeably fast) but it’s really really hot here (39c about 102f) is there anything i can do for her? cuz i can’t take her to a vet, she’s a stray, she is friendly and loves to rub herself on my feet but i don’t think she’ll ever let me pick her up(and i don’t intend to try!!) could it be just the heat?

We receive requests every week from people who are looking for some place to take their “pet” cat.  Each year we have to turn away more than 100 such “pets“.  These unwitting owners have discovered that all exotic cats, both male and female, neutered or not, spray and bite when they reach sexual maturity.  (They don’t just spray a little either.  We are talking about buckets of the foulest smelling urine, all over your house, your things and you. If you don’t believe me, watch this clip of a neutered lion HERE)  Moving them out to the yard means your neighbors will soon be complaining that your place smells like a zoo.   By the time they find us they have discovered that the zoos do not want their animals, that no one is willing to buy them and that they can’t even give them away.  Refuges are usually full to capacity and cannot take in another hungry mouth to feed.  All too often, these “pets” are turned out to fend for themselves, where they surely die of starvation or are euthanized.
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