There are a few possible causes of rapid breathing or increased respiration rate in cats which may be due to allergies, infection, foreign objects, sign of pain, other pulmonary problems among other issues. It is important that any serious causes or ruled out or treated, it would be best to have your Veterinarian give Darcy a check up to be on the safe side on your next visit as 80 breaths per minute is around double the physiological range. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM www.vet.cornell.edu/fhc/Health_Information/dyspnea.cfm

Thoracic drainage tubes to remove fluids from the pleural cavity. Local anesthesia and IV sedation are administered to keep your cat comfortable during this procedure. Tubes will be flushed several times a day with 0.9% saline or lactated Ringers solution warmed to body temperature to wash the chest cavity (pleural lavage). Tubes will need to remain in place for between 4-6 days.
There is no approved adulticide (medications to kill adult heartworms) treatments for cats. Adulticides are themselves dangerous. A single dead worm can be fatal in cats as it can break away and cause a blockage of the pulmonary artery (pulmonary embolism). Heartworms in cats have a shorter lifespan than those in dogs; therefore it is preferable to manage symptoms and use a wait and see approach.
I'm afraid that I can't offer much more assistance for Bella than what you have already done, without being able to see or examine her. If she has not had a trans-tracheal wash, that may be one test that can help determine the type of cells that are present in her lungs, and if the x-rays have not been evaluated by a specialist, that is another possibility, as your veterinarian should be able to send those x-rays to be evaluated further.
My wonderful kitty Dave is generally very healthy. He cuddles and plays all the time and is always by my side when I’m home. I’ve noticed this a few times but most recently a few days ago- he’ll be breathing very fast (60bpm) and shivering. He doesn’t try to hide and definitely wants to be held or cuddled but doesn’t want to move around. Last time it happened there was a bad thunderstorm and I wasn’t home for the worst part of it. Could he have just been scared? After a little while as the storm does down, he used his litter box and peed a lot, then pooped - also a lot. Buried it. Drank his water, ate some food and was back to purring and playing. I can’t remember if it had stormed the other times he’s acted like that with the rapid breathing and dilated glassy eyes, but i did notice that he’ll cuddle then use the box and feel better. He’s even cried before in his litter box, like it hurt to go poop. But I figured out that only happened when he ate fishy cat food so now he gets beef, chicken or turkey.
Originally hailing from Mesopotamia, now present-day Iran, these kitties won over a guy (OK, more accurately an Italian nobleman, perhaps the first documented “cat man”) who brought them to Europe in the 1600s, says Purina, adding that they later became a favorite of Queen Victoria. Perhaps their regal past is why they’re noted as independent and usually selective about the humans with whom they hang. They’re described as quiet types who thrive in relaxed environments.
What's wrong with my poor gravy? My cat Gravy has become extremely affectionate today and has followed me outside 3x, where he never ever goes! He's following me like a shadow and meowing at me more than normal. He doesn't seem to be in any pain, but his breathing and change of demeanor have me concerned. He's breathing fairly rapidly thru his nose, and he is moving his tail a lot also acting maybe as if he is worried?
He is not lethargic and doesn't have laboured breathing and doesn't pant when he does. He breathes well through his nose. When he washes himself, it's the normal kind. There are no abnormal bites or scratches when he does. My calculated guess is that it's normal for a kitten his age to be as active as he is? He gets the proper nutrition and he does drink kitten milk. Could that be a factor? I keep my eye on his breathing state when he sleeps on me.
This is about my cat. He was fine when he was a kitten other than being feral and not used to people. But about two months ago, he started doing this thing where he is breathing fine and all one minute and the next it sounds like his breath is coming out in quick bursts almost like coughing. And it always goes for about 8 or so bursts of breath. Is this something I should take him to the vet about ?
Historians and cat lovers in Scandinavia and England worked tirelessly to map out a bloodline foundation for the cat breed. Records show that the first Archangel Blue appeared in 1875 to compete against similar blue breeds at the London Crystal Palace. One newspaper said that the Archangel was “particularly furry”, “very handsome” and “has similarities to that of the wild grey rabbit”. Before long, word was spreading around about the Russian Blue.
Currently, most authentic Chausies produced are late generation cats with fully domestic temperaments. Their TICA registration certificates will usually indicate that they are "C" generation or "SBT," which nearly always means they are four generations or more beyond the jungle cat (F. chaus). In cases where they are "A" or "B" generation, it is usually because they have been recently outcrossed to another domestic breed to improve specific cosmetic traits, but the cats are nonetheless more than four generations beyond the handful of nondomestic ancestors.
Thank you for your email. Without examining her or knowing more about her condition and history, I can't determine what might be going on with Mochi, but those are signs that she needs to see a veterinarian as soon as possible, as they will be able to examine her, decide what tests or treatments might be necessary, and treat her so that she feels better. I hope that all goes well for her.

infoThe Russian Blue is a gentle cat with a somewhat shy nature around strangers. They are devoted to and affectionate with their loved ones. Sensitive to their owner’s moods, the Russian Blue will greet you at the door, find a quiet seat next to you, or fetch a toy at playtime. In fact, “fetching” is a favorite pastime for Russians and their owners! Read More…

Hi Claudia, thanks for your insights 🙂 Indeed, there’s no drug remedy for treating heartworm in cats, but it can be treated with thorough veterinary care. Cats are more resistant to heartworm than dogs, and signs often appear too late. Unfortunately heartworm is fatal even for cats who seem healthy on the outside:( Thanks for stopping by and reading FK.


The Maine Coon, one of the oldest in North America, was first discovered in Maine, where it is the official state feline. According to the International Cat Association (TICA), they are known and liked for their intelligence, friendliness and good-natured goofiness. (Fetch? Heck yeah!) They prefer to hang with their people versus being coddled by them.
Conservation is a very complex issue and captive settings cannot duplicate it, so the important work of saving entire eco systems is not taught and not done in a captive setting. What’s worse is that lip service is paid to these worthy objectives and when you pay to see captive wildlife you walk away thinking you did something good when in fact you contributed to the problem. You paid to see a cat in a cage. You made sure that industry continues to breed and exploit more cats. You did not pay to save the wild and all of the wonderous and magnifient creatures who call it home. You put another nail in the coffin for the planet.

Breathing rates may change for a variety of reasons and in some sleeping positions the airway may be slightly occluded which may result in altered breathing but without examining Kiki I cannot say for certain whether it is something to be concerned about or not. As for drinking, some cats may drink less that are on a wet food diet but you should ensure that she is keeping hydrated; you should visit your Veterinarian for a general check about the breathing and they can also check the hydration too. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
Rapid breathing may be caused by a variety of different issues which may include traumatic injury and pain; however if there has been a puncture wound to the chest or neck which is compromising the respiratory tract, it should be treated as a medical emergency. You should keep Grace calm for now but visit a Veterinarian as soon as one is open if she’s having difficulty breathing. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
If your cat is suffering from shock or pain as a result of trauma, if no broken bones are detected your vet will often take a conservative approach and allow your cat to be released to go home with a prescription for pain medication. You will need to provide a safe, warm and quiet place for your cat to heal and recover. Allergies will be treated with antihistamines and ongoing medication dosage in the case of seasonal or non acute reactions. 
The Russian Blue is robust, marked by strong sinews, a velvety fur and fine outlines. This breed is closely related to 3 other cat breeds, namely the British Blue (or the British Shorthair), the French Chartreux and Thailand Korat because they share the same hue and have short hair, but the similarity ends there. Each of the aforementioned blue breeds have their own fun personality and coat characteristics.

Any changes in breathing should be concerning, you should keep a close eye on Lucy to see if it passes; if it seems like she is having difficulty getting enough oxygen or her gums are pale you should visit a Veterinarian immediately. Infections, laryngeal disorders, airway obstructions, tumours, poisoning, anaemia among other causes may cause respiratory difficulties. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM


This is a well-behaved cat that is easy to train. Or, rather, it easily trains its people. It enjoys a good game of fetch and will keep the game going longer than you may have time for, and you will make time because the Russian Blue is known for actually appearing hurt when it has been ignored. Elegant, and reserved, this cat is also very playful, and loves to chase after toys or sunbeams.
Resting respiratory rate in a cat is around 15-40 breaths per minute, if Alaska is breathing more than that then it may be indicative of some underlying medical issue; without examining Alaska it is difficult for me to say specifically the cause or any treatment. An increase in respiratory effort may be attributable to pain, fluid in the lungs, narrowed airways among other issues; if you have recently changed food you should try changing back again but I would recommend having your Veterinarian check Alaska over to be on the safe side. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
^ "Colorpoint Longhair" has multiple meanings and "Javanese" has been used for at least one other breed; the WCF uses the "Javanese" name for the Oriental Longhair (not colorpointed). The WCF has also merged the colorpointed Javanese/Colorpoint Longhair, the Himalayan and the Colourpoint Shorthair of other registries into a single breed, the Colourpoint. In the CFA, the TICA and some other registries, the Javanese/Colorpoint Longhair has merged back into the Balinese as a division
Two days is still early days for treatment but you should start seeing some improvement in the next day or so, I would say to give it the weekend and if there is no improvement in Jinx’s condition you should return to your Veterinarian on Monday for another examination. Improvement in an animal's condition, especially with antibiotics, can be delayed in most cases so unless your Veterinarian said specifically ‘you’ll see improvement over the next 24 hours’ or something similar you should give it three or four days at least. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
It is possible that Milu is breathing rapidly due to pain, falling from that height may have left Milu with some permanent injury which occasionally causes some pain; however without examining him I cannot say with any certainty. You should continue to monitor him and look out for any other symptoms, but any head trauma may present with issue later on in life. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
If your cat is having difficulty breathing, this can be a life threatening emergency. It is important to have your cat seen by a veterinarian as soon as possible. You will need to give a thorough history of your cat's health, onset of symptoms, and possible incidents that might have preceded this condition. During the examination, the veterinarian will carefully observe how your cat breathes, and will listen to its chest for evidence of a heart murmur or fluid in the lungs. Your cat's gum color will be carefully evaluated as well, since the color of the gums can indicate whether oxygen is being delivered to the organs (hypoxemia) effectively, or if it there is a low red blood cell count (anemia). Your veterinarian may try to get your cat to cough by pressing on its windpipe. If your cat is having extreme difficulty breathing, the veterinarian will give your cat oxygen to help it breathe before doing any more tests.

A normal cat should always breathe with small movements of its chest. If your cat's sides are moving a large amount, this can indicate labored breathing. Unlike dogs, cats should generally never pant. You can also try to watch for any increased abdominal movements with your pet's breathing. If you cat is breathing normally, you shouldn't see any excessive movement in the abdomen, or any hitch to the breathing.
Without examining Kujo it is difficult to say specifically what the cause for panting is; sometimes there may be side effects from vaccines and other treatments but are self limiting and resolve themselves pretty quickly without veterinary intervention. However, if Kujo is struggling to breathe or there is no improvement you should return to your Veterinarian to be on the safe side. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

In the late 1890s/early 1900s, two hybrids were born in Chicago, USA, followed 2 years later by three sets of twin cubs born at a zoo in Hamburg, Germany from a puma father and leopard mother. Carl Hagenbeck apparently bred several litters of puma x leopard hybrids in 1898 at the suggestion of a menagerie owner in Britain; this was possibly Lord Rothschild (as one of the hybrids is preserved in his museum) who may have heard of the two hybrid cubs bred in Chicago in 1896 and suggested Hagenbeck reproduced the pairing.
Hi, My cat fell from our 3rd floor window 1 month ago. Hopefully i found him immediately and brought her to the vet. She had her mouth bleeding. The vet did an injection and xrayed her. She only had a palate wound, but the vet said that it was mostly on the hard palate and that she doesn’t need any stitches if she eats normally. Luckily when we got back home she immediately ate, drank water and went to the toilet. I want to think everything went back to normal but sometimes i find her breathing very fast, today she even panted when we were playing around and also i notice her sometimes blinking only one eye. When i asked our vet she says if the cat has a problem with her lungs she would breath rapidly all the time and not just sometimes. She said everything should be fine. But i am still worried, should i be?
The Maine Coon, one of the oldest in North America, was first discovered in Maine, where it is the official state feline. According to the International Cat Association (TICA), they are known and liked for their intelligence, friendliness and good-natured goofiness. (Fetch? Heck yeah!) They prefer to hang with their people versus being coddled by them.
Thank you for your email. Without examining Missy, I can't comment on what might be going on. She may just be a skittish cat, given all of the change that has gone on in her life recently. IF she is eating and drinking normally, and seems healthy otherwise, she may be okay. If she seems to be having breathing problems. it would be best to have her seen by your veterinarian, and they will be able to determine if she is normal, or has a problem. It is nice of you to help this cat when she needs it. I hope that she is okay.

Big cats are very aggressive, and will sprint and chase down their prey. This can range from mobs as small as ants to as large as deer. They will also attack the player if they come within the big cat's range, or if they are provoked. If a big cat is attacked by another mob, it will fight back. Like bears, big cats will attack other mobs when hungry. Once a big cat has made a kill, it will not be aggressive until it gets hungry again. Tamed big cats won't attack each other or other mobs, unless another mob attacks it first.

Thank you for your email. I do think that there might be more going on than stress, and kittens are prone to infectious diseases. If you don't trust that veterinarian that you saw, it would be a good idea to find a second opinion, even if you have to travel a bit to do so, as he could have a problem that needs to be treated. You can also call your veterinarian, let them know that he isn't getting better, and see if they have any other recommendations for him.
If Penny’s resting respiratory rate is above 40 breaths per minute, you should visit your Veterinarian for an examination; even if her bloodwork was good six weeks ago, something may have changed in that time. Without examining her and listing to her breathing and heart, I cannot start to narrow in on a specific cause; however the groaning is also concerning. Your Veterinarian will check her over and will treat is required. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
Thank you for your email. I do think that there might be more going on than stress, and kittens are prone to infectious diseases. If you don't trust that veterinarian that you saw, it would be a good idea to find a second opinion, even if you have to travel a bit to do so, as he could have a problem that needs to be treated. You can also call your veterinarian, let them know that he isn't getting better, and see if they have any other recommendations for him.
My cat (6 years old, castrated , female) for a week is showing signs of periodic but long lasting tachypnea. During the last week her breathing rate has reached 60/min ( normal 18-20/min) . Whenever she is tachypneic she is also very lethargic . Her popliteal lymph nodes are swollen and her white blood cel count ( 4,63 ) and neutrophil count (2.48) is slightly low. Abdominal ultrasound , cardiac and thoracic x rays did not show any abdonormalities ( mesenteric lymph nodes heart and lungs were normal ). Biochemical blood work results where normal . She is FeLV and FIV negative. She is also suffering from diarrhea and frequent urination ( 6 times daily)
Getting a Russian Blue cat is no light matter if you’re serious about having one in the house. The best breeders are the ones that are the most established in their region; they won’t easily give you a Foreign Blue until they know that you’re a good candidate for it. For starters, it will be best to meet the kitten’s mom and dad and check for pedigree and overall health and well-being. Allow the breeder to ask you several questions to make sure you and the cat breed will be compatible living together.

The cat staged its first public appearance in 1871, when a Russian Blue was displayed at the Crystal Palace in London, under the name Archangel Cat. In those days, the Russian Blue looked quite different than what we are familiar with today. They were short-haired, solid blue cats with thick, dense, glossy coats. And though they were allowed to compete in the same class as other shorthaired blues, the Russian Blue frequently lost to the British Blue breed, a cat that had caught the fancy of the people.


The reserved nature of the Foreign Blue means that strangers will have to acquaint themselves first before the cat can play with them. Guests will be more than likely regarded coolly and at a safe distance, with the cat not presenting himself until after a while. You may see these cats up high and perched on their safe spot, casually watching as the scene unfolds before deciding to jump in.
My cat seems to be a really healthy cat. I recently brought him to the vet and he had a physical exam done. They didn't find any problems. However, I do notice that he has always been a fast breather. I have two cats, and one has always breathed faster than the other and meowed a lot more than the other. However, other than those two things he seems fine - eats well, very active, skin and fur look great, etc. Do I need to be worried enough to take him to get a blood test?
^ Somerville, Louisa (2007). The Ultimate Guide to Cat Breeds. Edison, New Jersey: Chartwell Books. p. 44. ISBN 9780785822646. There is a lot of confusion surrounding the use of this name in the cat world, although it is always used to describe cats of distinctly Oriental type. It has been adopted simply because of the tradition which has grown up for using the names of countries and islands from south-eastern Asian for other Oriental breeds, such as the Siamese and Balinese.
A kitten turned up in my family's yard. Because of her tanish-grey coloring and the black tufts on her ears, we at first wondered if she was a bobcat kitten. A quick look at bobcat traits (she has a long black tail, no ruff of fur around her face) proved that not to be true, and we figured she was just a slightly odd-looking stray domestic cat. We took her in.
Tri-color Cats: Because of the associated genetic factors that create their color patterns, tri-color cats almost always are female, although occasional males crop up (about one in 3,000, according to this excellent article by Barbara French) Those rare males are almost always sterile, also for reasons of genetics, so don't expect to gain a fortune by selling your male calico cat.
A cat may have rapid breathing for a variety of different reasons which may include infections, pain, high temperature (to cool down), heart failure among other causes; if your Veterinarian was unable to identify a cause, you should keep a close eye on Skittle and see if there is anything which occurs before an episode as it may be a reaction to anxiety from something. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
Thank you for your email. It would be best to have him examined by your veterinarian, yes - if he had any type of underlying heart problem that you weren't aware of, they stress of being restrained may have caused fluid to build up around his heart and lungs. They may want to take an x-ray to make sure that he is okay, but it isn't normal for him to still be breathing heavily and coughing 2 days after the event. I hope that he is okay.

Little is known about the origin of the Russian Blue breed, though stories are legendary. Many believe the Russian Blue is a natural breed originating from the Archangel Isles in northern Russia, where the long winters developed a cat with a dense, plush coat. Rumors also abound that the Russian Blue breed descended from the cats kept by the Russian Czars. Assuming the Russian Blue did migrate from northern Russia, it was likely via ship to England and northern Europe in the mid 1860s.

Still, due to their characteristic nervousness, Russian Blue’s generally did not perform particularly well at shows, leading to a decline in their popularity into the 1980s. When breeders focused their attention on improving the personality of the breed through selective breeding, and by training their kittens to stay calm in a show environment, the Russian Blue once again became an attention getter and award winner. Since the 1990s the Russian Blue has been winning regional and national awards consistently, and today it enjoys a well-deserved and steady popularity.

If you’re her favorite human, be ready for nonstop love, because she is all about you, you and more you. Feeling out of sorts? She’ll stick by your side, working her healing abilities on you until you’re up and at ’em again! Prepping dinner? She’ll chill by your side, acting as taste tester. Binge-watching a new TV show? She’ll curl up by your side — just have a comb handy, as she loves being brushed while watching the tube!


In 1912 the Foreign Blue, one of the breed’s early names, warranted their own class and finally got separated from the blue cats variety. Progress of the cat’s popularity was halted, with the breed coming dangerously close to extinction during the onset of World War II. Breeders tried to revive the line by crossing the Russian Blue to Bluepoint Siamese and British Blues. Scandinavian breeders tried the same using Finland blue cats and Siamese blues.
Rapid breathing may be caused by a variety of different issues which may include traumatic injury and pain; however if there has been a puncture wound to the chest or neck which is compromising the respiratory tract, it should be treated as a medical emergency. You should keep Grace calm for now but visit a Veterinarian as soon as one is open if she’s having difficulty breathing. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
A stray cat showed up at my house a couple days ago. She is very thin and I've started her on small throughout the day. She is eating, drinking, voiding, and stooling okay. Eyes, ears, and nose are all clear. The only major thing I've noticed is rapid breathing when purring or stress (loud noises make her skittish). I have pets of my own and really cannot afford a costly vet visit, and our local shelter and a rescue are overwhelmed with companion animals at this time. I've started her on antibiotics and am keeping her isolated from my own pets. My daughter has asthma and this looks very similar. Any advice? I've found out that her previous owner passed away and a neighbour tried to bring her to her house, the cat bolted and they couldn't find her, 3 weeks later she showed up at my place. She is a spayed 5 year old female who was up to date on shots.
Adding to the captivating physical qualities of this breed is the eye color. The eyes are yellow while the Russian Blue is a kitten, and by four months there is a bright green ring around the pupil. As the cat matures, the eye color graduates into a bright, vivid green, aesthetically intensifying the already remarkable blue-silver coloring of the cat. The eyes are wide set and round, and only slightly slanted at the upper corners, giving the Russian Blue a sweet expression that matches well with its gentle temperament.
The goal of breeding the Serengeti Cat is to produce a cat that resembles the wild Serval but does not contain any Serval bloodline. The first Serengeti Cat was bred by Karen Sausman in 1994 by crossing a Bengal and an Oriental Shorthair. This "foundation cat" and its progeny have been bred with many other types of cats to improve the breed—but no Servals. However, its lineage does include the Asian Leopard Cat whose genes contributed to its Bengal Cat ancestor. Serengeti Cats have long ears and long legs like a Serval, and a neck that does not taper where it meets the head. They are agile, active, and vocal. TICA classifies this cat as an advanced new breed.
Cats can also develop fluid build up in the chest that is localized outside the lungs. This happens in an area named the pleural space. When fluid accumulates in the pleural space, the lungs cannot inflate as much as they should. Your cat will develop shortness of breath and labored breathing as more fluid fills this space. According to VCA Animal Hospitals, some causes of pleural effusion include:

If Shadow is having trouble breathing whilst laying on his back, it may be attributable to a few different issues, but head position and the soft palate can cause a restriction in the airway which may cause some breathing difficulty; at your next visit to your Veterinarian ask them to check his throat and soft palate for any issues. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM


Cuddling may be in a ragdoll’s DNA. Developed as a breed in California in the 1960s, says TICA, they tend to collapse — just like a ragdoll — into the arms of willing snugglers. They’re described as relaxed, happy, quiet cats that are usually tolerant of other animals and children who want to carry them around. Like dogs, Ragdolls can be friendly, smart and have been taught by some owners to fetch.
Age can have an effect on any animal and may cause a minor issue for a younger animal to be more severe in an older one; rapid breathing may be caused by a few different causes which may include pain, obstruction, heart failure among other issues. Given Zoey’s age, you should certainly visit your Veterinarian for an examination and a blood test to check her numbers. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
So from your question it seems like the abscess was treated successfully but now you’re noticing at the respiratory rate is increased; there are many different causes for an increased respiratory rate which may include pain, heart disease, stress among other causes. Without examining Kitty I cannot (legally) diagnose a particular condition or offer treatment; you should return to your Veterinarian for another examination especially since there are many possible causes which it could be. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
Thank you for your email. I do think that there might be more going on than stress, and kittens are prone to infectious diseases. If you don't trust that veterinarian that you saw, it would be a good idea to find a second opinion, even if you have to travel a bit to do so, as he could have a problem that needs to be treated. You can also call your veterinarian, let them know that he isn't getting better, and see if they have any other recommendations for him.

There are many possible causes for a cat to feel lethargic with an increased respiratory rate which may include infections, gastrointestinal obstruction (increased breathing rate due to pain), anaemia (less red blood cells lead to an increase in respiration) among other causes; you should keep a close eye on Buddy, but it would be wise to visit your Veterinarian to help narrow in on a specific cause for the lethargy as there are many possible causes. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
The Chausie (/ˈtʃaʊsi/) is a domestic breed of cat that was developed by breeding a few individuals from the non-domestic species jungle cat (Felis chaus) to a far greater number of domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). The Chausie was first recognized as a domestic breed by The International Cat Association (TICA) in 1995.[1] Within the domestic breeds, the Chausie is categorized as a non-domestic hybrid source breed.[2] Because Chausies are mostly descended from domestic cats, by about the fourth generation they are fully fertile and completely domestic in temperament.
Lots of places claim to be breeding cats to save them from extinction when in fact they are not involved in any real conservation effort and rather are justifying their breeding to have babies who will bring in paying visitors and worse yet to sell.  Many people contact us each week saying they want to start a captive breeding program to save the cats from extinction, but the only viable programs currently being operated in such a manner as to accommodate this goal are being run by accredited zoos who will not work with the private sector.  Unless you can trace your cat’s pedigree all the way back to the wild and you have been accepted into the Species Survival Plan for that specific breed, you will not be aiding conservation, but rather will be contributing to the over abundance of unwanted animals.
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