Give your Foreign Blue an adequate diet in the form of premium, dry cat food. You can spoil your cat from time to time and give him canned food that’s rich in protein. As they get older, dietary requirements may change, so it’s best to consult with a veterinarian for recommendations. When it’s time to change food, remember to add the new food gradually and mix it in the old one in the span of a few weeks or so. Make the transition too fast and your cat may get an upset tummy.

Thank you for your email. Without seeing Sharleen, I can't recommend any medication or therapies for her, and many OTC pain medications are toxic to cats. Your veterinarian will be able to recommend something for her discomfort since they have seen her and know her history. It would be a great idea to call them and let them know that you think she is in pain, and follow any recommendations that they may have. I hope that everything goes well for her.


Map out a regular routine for when you can do all of these things on a constant basis. Remember that the Russian Blue loves a good routine and will much more likely accept the treatment. Don’t forget to include playtime and petting to keep them happy. Your cat shouldn’t give you any problems during the grooming routine because they love to be combed, brushed and petted. In fact, the more time you spend with a Foreign Blue, the better!
The TICA Chausie breed standard allows three colors: solid black, black grizzled tabby, and black (a.k.a. brown) ticked tabby.[8] Because the Chausie breed is relatively new, Chausies are still frequently born that have a variety of other colors and patterns, and they make wonderful pets. However, only the three permissible colors are considered ideal. Only cats in the three permissible colors can be entered in new breed classes at cat shows, and only the three colors will be eligible eventually for championship classes. Gold or yellow eye color is preferred, though yellower and lighter shades of green are allowed.
Panthers are small big cats with orange or yellowish eyes, and are covered in a black coat. They are not actually a different species, but are in fact black variants of leopards (much like real life panthers). An essence of darkness can be used on a panther to create a winged panther. Winged panthers share the same wing textures as black manticores and bat horses.
My cat seems to have rapid breathing, I can see her stomach area rising and falling as she sleeps. I tried to take her breathing rate and got 60-65 per minute. She is grooming herself more than usual. She has always been skittish, her eating is normal, and she has had normal bladder and bowel functions. I have a hard time getting her into a carrier so I do not take her to the vet often. I am in an area that is getting prepared for a powerful nor'easter, so I can't get her to a vet for a few days. Should I be worried? What can I do?
The slight upturn to the corners of the mouth make Russian Blues appear to be forever smiling. Members of this breed are generally polite, quiet, and well-behaved, for cats. It’s quite easy to teach them to stay off counters and out of off-limit areas; usually a simple “No” will do. However, Russian Blues seem to think politeness should go both ways and take offense at being made to look silly. A dignified cat, Russian Blues can be trusted to know when you’re making fun of them—and they won’t soon forget this breach in manners, either.
My female cat, Bella, is almost 18 years old. In the past she has been diagnosed with feline leukemia, but does not show any signs of illness from that, vet said it was dormant and she no doubt has had it since birth. She is strictly an indoor cat. In the last 18 months, she has lost about 3 pounds. Up until a few weeks ago, she was eating and drinking as normal.
Tortoiseshell AKA "Tortie": Torties are not true tri-color cats because they do not all contain white. Instead of solid blocks, torties' coats weave the black and red throughout, creating a tapestry of color. They can evoke a feeling of fall. Tortoiseshell cats may also be dilute, with softer versions of the colors. Like the tabby, some torties may also have white accent markings, creating a "tortie with white." They also sometimes have an interesting mix of tortoiseshell, with a bonus of tabby patterning mixed throughout. These cats are referred to as torbies. It should be noted that white plays a very small role in the tortoiseshell pattern; most of the color weaving is done with the red and black components.
A tigon is a hybrid cross between a male tiger (Panthera tigris) and a female lion (Panthera leo). Thus, it has parents with the same genus but of different species. The tigon is not currently as common as the converse hybrid, the liger.The tigon’s genome includes genetic components of both parents. Tigons can exhibit visible characteristics from both parents: they can have both spots from the mother (lions carry genes for spots—lion cubs are spotted and some adults retain faint markings) and stripes from the father. Any mane that a male tigon may have will appear shorter and less noticeable than a lion’s mane and is closer in type to the ruff of a male tiger. It is a common misconception that tigons are smaller than lions or tigers. They do not exceed the size of their parent species because they inherit growth-inhibitory genes from the lioness mother, but they do not exhibit any kind of dwarfism or miniaturization; they often weigh around 180 kilograms (400 lb).
Thank you for your email, I'm sorry that Cracker is having these problems. Without examining him, it is hard for me to advise you on whether he is suffering, and that is probably a question to ask the most recent veterinarian that you took him to. If he has a fungal or bacterial infection, he should be improving on those medications. If he has cancer, he may not improve, and it is important to assess his quality of life. If he starts breathing with his mouth open or stretching his neck to breathe, that is serious respiratory distress and is an emergency. IF he is eating and drinking and generally happy, he may be breathing heavier but not suffering. It would be best to have a recheck with the most recent veterinarian, as it has been a week on medications, and see if they feel he is improving - they may want to take x-rays and compare them with the previous x-rays to look for signs of improvement. They will be able to give you a better idea as to whether he may be suffering, or if he seems comfortable. I hope that all goes well with him.
There are various causes for respiratory symptoms in cats and without examining Nala or seeing an episode it is difficult to give you a definitive ‘that’s normal’ or not; if Nala is in respiratory difficulty you should return to a Veterinarian for an examination to be on the safe side. Conditions like laryngeal paralysis may cause intermittent respiratory difficulty but I cannot say with any certainty. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
He is not lethargic and doesn't have laboured breathing and doesn't pant when he does. He breathes well through his nose. When he washes himself, it's the normal kind. There are no abnormal bites or scratches when he does. My calculated guess is that it's normal for a kitten his age to be as active as he is? He gets the proper nutrition and he does drink kitten milk. Could that be a factor? I keep my eye on his breathing state when he sleeps on me.
Those animals were then bred indiscriminately, and many purposely inbred for traits such as white coats, tiny size, and docile (read retarded) temperament. None of the exotic cats in wild hands can be traced back to the wild, other than local cats, cougars and bobcats, who may have been snatched from the wild in the U.S. For that reason they can never be bred for introduction back to the wild. 

Do your research. Bengals, Savannahs and many other hybrids even removed from the original crosses can be bad bad bad cats to have. Why risk a hybrid wild animal when you can get domestics that look just as amazing? Example: Ocicat; Egyptian Mau; if you are looking for wild looking cats. Classic Bombay cats look like black panthers; pixie bobs (some say are hybrids but its bunk) and highlanders are wild looking cats but not wild in the slightest. Many were made from regular domestic crosses with purebreds and/or landrace natural breeds etc. Look around, use wikipedia. Check out the cat fancy sites. There are domestics for everyone. Most are cheaper too. Wild animals/hybrids are like leaving a loaded pistol on your computer desk. You just never know for sure what can happen. Domestics can be unpredictable in the right circumstances, why add in a wild/hybrid factor and possibly endanger people and other pets around you? Would you want to carry that guilt the rest of your life?
If your cat is breathing heavily while resting, it can be a sign of several common problems from anxiety to airway disease. Understanding some of the reasons for labored breathing in cats can help you assess the severity of the situation. However, if your cat is having difficulty breathing, this is an emergency, and you should take your cat to your veterinarian right away.
My cat, Arwen, just came out to the living room limping badly with her front right leg kinda knuckling over. The leg and paw is cool to the touch in comparison to the rest of her body and her shoulder blade is just flat. I pinched her toes a little and there was no reaction. She's also breathing kind of shallow and fast with it seems like she's breathing from her stomach not her chest. She is crying a little bit but not when we touch the leg, onky when she tries to move around while laying down.

The Ocicat was named for its resemblance to an ocelot, but it has no actual ocelot, or any wild cat, in its family tree—at least since the breed was developed in 1964. Only its appearance earned it a spot on this list. Virginia Daly, a longtime Michigan cat breeder, was trying to get a Siamese cat with Abyssinian points. She bred together cats with Abyssinian, Siamese, and American shorthair lineages. A kitten named Tonga resulted, which had ivory-colored fur with golden spots. Tonga was not used for breeding, but the same parents later produced kittens with the same markings. Ocicats come in a variety of colors, but are known for their spots. The breed standards say an Ocicat should be heavier than it appears and be well-muscled. Ocicats are sociable and their behavior may remind you of a dog—such as the way many like to play fetch. The Ocicat is recognized by TICA as a championship breed. 

The TICA Chausie breed standard allows three colors: solid black, black grizzled tabby, and black (a.k.a. brown) ticked tabby.[8] Because the Chausie breed is relatively new, Chausies are still frequently born that have a variety of other colors and patterns, and they make wonderful pets. However, only the three permissible colors are considered ideal. Only cats in the three permissible colors can be entered in new breed classes at cat shows, and only the three colors will be eligible eventually for championship classes. Gold or yellow eye color is preferred, though yellower and lighter shades of green are allowed.
In one bit of Russian Blue lore, it’s said that the breed is a descendant of the royal felines kept by the Russian tsars. Contrary to that fun splash of folklore is the rumor that the Russian Blue cat actually originated on Northern Russia’s Archangel Isles (giving the breed the nickname Archangel Cat), where the breed was picked up by sailors in the 1800s and brought to Europe. And according to folklore, the Russian Blue is said to bring not just good luck but healing abilities, too!
If a cat’s resting respiratory rate exceeds 40 breaths per minute you should visit your Veterinarian; there are many causes for an increase in respiratory rate which may include infections, pain, heart disease, liver disease, parasites among many other conditions. Whilst you should keep an eye on her, I would still recommend visiting a Veterinarian sooner rather than later to be on the safe side. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
A cats resting respiratory rate should not be above 40 breaths per minute, if the respiratory rate is above 40 breaths per minute especially if over 60 breaths per minute you should visit a Veterinarian for an examination to determine an underlying cause. An increase in respiratory rate may be due to infections, airway deformities, anaemia, lung disorders among many other causes; without examining Maisey I cannot determine a cause. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
Black grizzled tabbies are unique to the Chausie breed among domestic cats. The grizzled pattern comes from the jungle cat; it is never found in domestic cats unless they have F. chaus ancestors.[8] The kittens are often born completely black, although occasionally they may have a bit of light colored fur on the chin or neck at birth. As the kittens get older, they begin to look more and more like tabbies. However, they are tabbies with black on black markings. That is, the background color is a sort of dark brownish black, and the markings, such as the mid-line stripe on the spine, are pure black. In addition, alternating bands of off-white appear on individual hairs in the background color. The bands are along the middle of each hair. The root of each hair is mousie gray, while the tip of each hair is black. The off-white banding or "ticking" usually appears first on the neck, chin, and belly, as well as the insides of the ears. Later, the grizzling will often extend up the sides from belly to almost the spine. In the most heavily grizzled cats, the grizzling extends over the back of the neck, on the face, and even on the legs and tail. Usually the grizzling is complete by age 3 years. The effect in the best cats is spectacular. Grizzling does have a wide range of expression, however, and some cats never have more than a few banded hairs in the ears or in one spot on the belly, occasionally not even that.
My 2 year old female (not spayed) cat has had strange breathing since she was a kitten (a few month old) it started when I went on holiday and left her at home with my partner. When she’s active or sleeping her breathing is normal but it’s when she’s just resting and especially purring her breathing is quite fast and he stomach is visablly moving quickly. She is healthy and has never had any accidents or anything traumatic. She drinks well, goes to the toilet fine, she’s a fussy eater but does eat (so not really worrying) she’s very active, love she climbing and playing and running around. Her breathing is just really unusual when she’s resting. It’s like her whole body is moving with her breaths. In my opinion it’s like her little lungs are having to work hard to get the oxygen in however she doesn’t show any signs or symptoms of being unwell.
A cat may have rapid breathing for a variety of different reasons which may include infections, pain, high temperature (to cool down), heart failure among other causes; if your Veterinarian was unable to identify a cause, you should keep a close eye on Skittle and see if there is anything which occurs before an episode as it may be a reaction to anxiety from something. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
There are many different options for analgesia in cats, however without knowing which medication was provided for pain relief I cannot give you an indication of how long it would be effective for as we have many different products on the market with different active ingredients, mechanisms of action and duration. A respiratory rate above 35 or 40 breaths per minute is expected as a result of discomfort or pain, but without examining Chester or knowing what was administered I cannot give you any specific information. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
Age can have an effect on any animal and may cause a minor issue for a younger animal to be more severe in an older one; rapid breathing may be caused by a few different causes which may include pain, obstruction, heart failure among other issues. Given Zoey’s age, you should certainly visit your Veterinarian for an examination and a blood test to check her numbers. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
A normal cat should always breathe with small movements of its chest. If your cat's sides are moving a large amount, this can indicate labored breathing. Unlike dogs, cats should generally never pant. You can also try to watch for any increased abdominal movements with your pet's breathing. If you cat is breathing normally, you shouldn't see any excessive movement in the abdomen, or any hitch to the breathing.

Thank you for your email. Without seeing Sharleen, I can't recommend any medication or therapies for her, and many OTC pain medications are toxic to cats. Your veterinarian will be able to recommend something for her discomfort since they have seen her and know her history. It would be a great idea to call them and let them know that you think she is in pain, and follow any recommendations that they may have. I hope that everything goes well for her.
Getting a Russian Blue cat is no light matter if you’re serious about having one in the house. The best breeders are the ones that are the most established in their region; they won’t easily give you a Foreign Blue until they know that you’re a good candidate for it. For starters, it will be best to meet the kitten’s mom and dad and check for pedigree and overall health and well-being. Allow the breeder to ask you several questions to make sure you and the cat breed will be compatible living together.
Thank you for your email. I'm glad that you have a scheduled appointment with Paige, as if the medications did not work, it deserves a second look. One thing that your veterinarian can do is to take an x-ray of her lungs and make sure that there is nothing to worry about there. If she isn't on heartworm prevention, a heartworm test might be a good idea as well. Without knowing the details of her situation, or being able to examine her, I can't comment more on what might be happening with her. I hope that she recovers well! 

Kokwa may be breathing fast due to stress, pain, respiratory infection, heart conditions, anaemia (check gums), poisoning among other causes; without examining Kokwa and listening to the heart and lungs I cannot say specifically what may be wrong. You should keep a close eye on Kokwa and if the breathing doesn’t improve you should visit your Veterinarian in the morning or if you see he is in respiratory distress or his gums are white visit an Emergency Veterinarian immediately. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
A normal healthy cat will take 20-30 regular breaths per minute. The air travels into your cat’s lungs and is used to oxygenate the blood, which is then circulated throughout your cat’s vital organs. When a cat is suffering from rapid breathing, this breath rate increases and often becomes irregular, or shallow. This can often be an indication that your cat is not able to bring enough oxygen into the lungs to supply their body’s need. Rapid breathing is a symptom that can be caused by a number of illnesses or injuries. Since regular breathing is vital, if your cat is suffering from rapid breathing (also known as tachypnea) it is a serious and life threatening condition and you should seek immediate veterinary care.
My cat seems to have rapid breathing, I can see her stomach area rising and falling as she sleeps. I tried to take her breathing rate and got 60-65 per minute. She is grooming herself more than usual. She has always been skittish, her eating is normal, and she has had normal bladder and bowel functions. I have a hard time getting her into a carrier so I do not take her to the vet often. I am in an area that is getting prepared for a powerful nor'easter, so I can't get her to a vet for a few days. Should I be worried? What can I do?

Hmmm where did you get this information? I haven't heard of any Bobcat/Siamese crossing. Just because a cat has a bobbed tail, does not mean it was crossed with a Bobcat. When talking Bobcat, do you mean an American Bobtail, or a similar breed, or a true 100% Bobcat. There is a breed of cat that, as the legend goes, has been crossed with a wild Bobcat. The breed is known as the Pixie Bob. I have 4 Pixies and yes, they do have some traits that do resemble a Bobcat. Not just with their coloring and markings, but with their behaviors as well. Amber and Boris, pictured in my signature, are true wild Bobcats. The idea of crossing a Bobcat with any domestic cat is not as easy as some may think. For one, Bobcats are very aggressive breeders and have been known to kill each other while breeding in captivity. The thought of putting any domestic cat in with an intact male Bobcat is just asking for trouble. The legend of the Pixie Bob is that this breeding took place in the wild, with the crossing of a male Bobcat with a female domestic "barn cat". These male Bobcats may have been older males, who no longer could compete in the wild with much younger males. Whether or not this legend is true has not been proven. Yes, the look of the Pixie Bob does resemble a Bobcat to some degree. The Toyger cat, a new breed of domestic cat, has been bred to resemble a small tiger, the same size as most domestics. The coloring and markings are there, but there is now way that this cat was crossed with a tiger. These markings and coloring come about by selective breeding and take years to produce the final results the breeders are looking for. 

Much like her Siamese relative, the Russian blue is very vocal, and she'll use her voice to communicate with her pet parents when she wants to play, eat, or snuggle. She's both observant and persistent, always ensuring that her needs are met. She doesn't adapt well to change, such as varying meal times or unknown visitors, so expect to hear about it! She'll respond positively if you converse back-and-forth with her on a regular basis, which means you're never truly alone when you have a Russian blue fur baby.

Inconsistency in breed classification and naming among registries means that an individual animal may be considered different breeds by different registries (though not necessarily eligible for registry in them all, depending on its exact ancestry). For example, the TICA's Himalayan is considered a colorpoint variety of the Persian by the CFA, while the Javanese (or Colorpoint Longhair) is a color variation of the Balinese in the TICA and the CFA; both breeds are merged (along with the Colorpoint Shorthair) into a single "mega-breed", the Colourpoint, in the World Cat Federation (WCF), who have repurposed the name "Javanese" for the Oriental Longhair. Also, "Colo[u]rpoint Longhair" refers to multiple different breeds in some other registries. There are several examples of nomenclatural confusion of this sort. Furthermore, many geographical and cultural names for cat breeds are fanciful selections made by Western breeders to be "exotic"-sounding and bear no relationship to the actual origin of the breeds;[4] the Balinese, Javanese, and Himalayan are all examples of this trend.


The Russian Blue made his first appearance on the world stage of the cat fancy at an exhibit of cats held at London’s Crystal Palace in 1875. Labeled an Archangel Cat, because he was said to be from the Russian island of Archangel, he competed against other blue cats of varying types. A newspaper report of the show described the Russian Blue as “very handsome” and “particularly furry,” adding “They resemble mostly the common wild grey rabbit.” Other early names by which the breed was known were Maltese and Foreign Blue.


Hello, my 20 year old brother stepped on our [probably] 7-8 week kitten, she's breathing rapidly now, I don't know what to feed her but it's been at least a while since she was squished, she's acting normal but still is breathing oddly, I don't know what to feed her as well cause I'm scared it might damage her teeth or something, and I can't afford a vet.


Tortoiseshell AKA "Tortie": Torties are not true tri-color cats because they do not all contain white. Instead of solid blocks, torties' coats weave the black and red throughout, creating a tapestry of color. They can evoke a feeling of fall. Tortoiseshell cats may also be dilute, with softer versions of the colors. Like the tabby, some torties may also have white accent markings, creating a "tortie with white." They also sometimes have an interesting mix of tortoiseshell, with a bonus of tabby patterning mixed throughout. These cats are referred to as torbies. It should be noted that white plays a very small role in the tortoiseshell pattern; most of the color weaving is done with the red and black components.
Still, due to their characteristic nervousness, Russian Blue’s generally did not perform particularly well at shows, leading to a decline in their popularity into the 1980s. When breeders focused their attention on improving the personality of the breed through selective breeding, and by training their kittens to stay calm in a show environment, the Russian Blue once again became an attention getter and award winner. Since the 1990s the Russian Blue has been winning regional and national awards consistently, and today it enjoys a well-deserved and steady popularity.
Thank you for your email. I'm glad that you have a scheduled appointment with Paige, as if the medications did not work, it deserves a second look. One thing that your veterinarian can do is to take an x-ray of her lungs and make sure that there is nothing to worry about there. If she isn't on heartworm prevention, a heartworm test might be a good idea as well. Without knowing the details of her situation, or being able to examine her, I can't comment more on what might be happening with her. I hope that she recovers well!

There are many causes for a cat to have heavy breathing and without examining Jagger and auscultating his chest etc… I cannot say if there is a cause for concern or not; however heavy breathing may be caused by stress, pain, infections, obstructions, heart conditions among other causes. You should keep an eye on Jagger and visit your Veterinarian if you have any concerns or symptoms get worse. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM
The first hybrids of the jungle cat (Felis chaus) and the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) may have been born in Egypt several thousand years ago.[2] The jungle cat is native to a vast region spanning Southeast Asia, India, and the Middle East (Sunquist, 2002). For the most part, it is an Asian species of wild cat that lives by rivers and lakes. But the species is found in one small area of North Africa: the Nile Delta. It is well known that the ancient Egyptians kept domestic cats as pets. Many domestic cat mummies have been found interred in Egyptian temples. What is not so well known is that one other species of cat was occasionally preserved after death via mummification; that was the jungle cat (Malek, 1993). F. chaus is not a timid species; they are known for moving into abandoned buildings and living as happily by irrigation canals as by wild rivers, provided that adequate prey and shrubbery for cover are available. Because domestic cats are likely to have frequently encountered jungle cats along the Nile and occasionally even within their owners' homes, it seems that hybrids of the two species were probably often born there.[3][better source needed]

There are a few possible causes of rapid breathing or increased respiration rate in cats which may be due to allergies, infection, foreign objects, sign of pain, other pulmonary problems among other issues. It is important that any serious causes or ruled out or treated, it would be best to have your Veterinarian give Darcy a check up to be on the safe side on your next visit as 80 breaths per minute is around double the physiological range. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM www.vet.cornell.edu/fhc/Health_Information/dyspnea.cfm
About a month ago my 8 month old cat started panting after playing. I have also noticed for some time that her breathing is quite rapid even when sleeping. I called the vet and he suggested I take her for a check up. Everything seemed fine when the vet visited her but to be sure he told me to take her for a chest x-ray and blood test. I got the results yesterday and still no cause has been found to explain her breathing. All the tests were normal. The vet says he cannot rule out a heart problem and he suggests taking her to a cardiologist for a heart ultrasound. Apart from the panting (which is not every time she exercises but just occasionally) and rapid breathing (which I see every day) she seems a very health and active cat. I am not sure how concerned I should be about this. Perhaps it is just due to the heat. But I would not want to overlook a more serious underlying cause. I would not want to put her through any more distress by taking her a long way to a cardiologist. I would be grateful for any advice.
My 8 months old male cat is an outdoor cat and these days he started going outside the house fence for the first time( following my older cat) Today started raining and he came all dirty and wet and freezing. I immediately coverd him in a blanket and he’s been sleeping all day and not eating. He looks very tired and everytime I try to wake him he barely raises his head and also sometimes starts breathing very fast. Has he possibly cought a cold or maybe got injured ?? Help please 😩
Class clown — there’s always one! Purina notes that these confident and friendly creatures stand out because of their clowning around. These short-tailed cats, who were bred in the U.S. starting in the 1960s, according to TICA, make a great family pet since they’re sociable with humans of all ages and even other friends of the four-legged variety. They’re all about fun — but aren’t in need of your undivided attention — and don’t tend to attach themselves to one person.  
Give your Foreign Blue an adequate diet in the form of premium, dry cat food. You can spoil your cat from time to time and give him canned food that’s rich in protein. As they get older, dietary requirements may change, so it’s best to consult with a veterinarian for recommendations. When it’s time to change food, remember to add the new food gradually and mix it in the old one in the span of a few weeks or so. Make the transition too fast and your cat may get an upset tummy.

There are no specific health problems related to the Russian Blue. It is a genetically sound breed, mainly due to it being a naturally occurring breed. Brushing the coat is not essential, but is a nice addition to the weekly routine of other grooming, such as brushing the teeth. This breed has a particular fondness for human company and will sit quite happily while being combed or brushed, since it is spending time with the one it cares for.
My cat is recovering from having a tumor taken off of his neck. He is not thriving and today i found that he has blood in his urine. He is also breathing in short bursts. The doc said unless he seems very uncomfortable, it can wait till tomorrow, MOnday. I want the cat to see his usual vet, instead of taking him to emergency. What would you do? I don’t want him to suffer, so i gave him some pain meds.
Hello. My cay spooky was hospitalized last night for suspected poisoning from bug spray. He was stabilized and spent the night with iv and vitamins, pain medication etc. Today at around 5 they released him to be watched at home and he seems much better although he seems to be having rapid breaths or a hard time breathing. I can hear it and he seems to be straining. Is this from all the medication or residual poison? will it pass?
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